History, Architecture and Urban Form of Rawalpindi, 1857-2017


  • Mujeeb Ahmad
  • Fakhar Bilal Assistant Professor, Department of History, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad


Rawalpindi, History, Gakkhars, urbanization, architecture


Rawalpindi is an important and historical city in South Asia. It has its links with Gandhara Civilization and has been a cultural nexus and
invasion route for centuries. It has been invaded by Greeks to the Afghans. Rawalpindi was a main center and trade route during the 18th century. Nowadays, it is part of the twin city of Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan. This city has its own distinctive culture, lifestyle, and architecture. It was the city of the Gakkhar tribe, which traces its traditional origin from the Kiyanis of Persia. It was during the Gakkhar period that, Rawalpindi gained its lost position. After the fall of Gakkhars in 1765, the Sikhs and after March 1849, the British were the custodians of the city. Since 1947, it is an important socio-political and military center of Pakistan. Rawalpindi has trading, commercial, cultural and educational importance. It also has several remains of the rich architecture of the Muslim, Hindu, Sikh, and British origins. In this paper, an attempt has been made to explore the archeological and architectural history of Rawalpindi with special reference to the Muslim architecture and development of the city as a cosmopolitan.




How to Cite

Ahmad , M. . ., & Bilal, F. (2021). History, Architecture and Urban Form of Rawalpindi, 1857-2017. Journal of Asian Civilizations, 43(1), 85–115. Retrieved from http://jac.qau.edu.pk/index.php/jac/article/view/19