The Beads from Gandi Umar Khan in the Gomal Plain, Pakistan: An Introduction


  • Ayesha Hina PhD Candidate, Department of Archaeology, University of Peshawar, Pakistan.
  • Zakirullah Jan Professor, Department of Archaeology, University of Peshawar, Pakistan.


Gandi Umar Khan, Gomal Plain, Beads


The mature Harappan period urban centre of Gandi Umar Khan is located to the west of Dera Ismail khan city in the Gomal Plain of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in the Northwestern South Asia. Discovered in 1997, the site of Gandi Umar Khan was excavated jointly by the Directorate of Archaeology and Museums, Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the Department of Archaeology, University of Peshawar in 2003 and in 2004. Four cultural periods have been identified namely the Tochi-Gomal, Transitional, Kot Diji and mature Harappan ranging in date tentatively from 3300 to 1900 BC, based on relative chronology from identical sites in the region. In addition to a large number of cultural artifacts such as ceramics, figurines, metal objects and tools, about 1504 beads, pendants, seal and amulets made of stone, bones, terracotta, shell, copper alloys, gold and glass were also discovered during these excavations. Here focus is made only the beads from the site. The extensive study of these beads is fascinating because they can provide significantly more information about populations' mining and technological abilities, as well as their economic and social activities, that we can imagine. Besides, they help us dating and contextualizing other material. The study examines the bead collection in the context of materials utilization as well as its typology, origin and cultic significance. The purpose is to know a better understanding of the significance of the Gandi Umar Khan site in the Gomal Plain.




How to Cite

Hina , A. ., & Jan, Z. (2024). The Beads from Gandi Umar Khan in the Gomal Plain, Pakistan: An Introduction. Journal of Asian Civilizations, 46(2), 1–18. Retrieved from